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ENEA - Fusion division

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HIGH-VOLTAGE Electric Power Supplies

ENEA’s experience in the field of high-voltage power supplies dates back to the 1960s (when ENEA was called the National Centre for Nuclear Energy [CNEN]).
With regard to fusion, the competence of the FUS-ING Section is directed in particular to the supply of radiofrequency (gyrotrons, klystrons) sources with frequencies from 300 MHz to 130 GHz, power of the order of Megawatts and response times of the order of a few tens of microseconds. Radiofrequency power is used for thermonuclear plasma heating and for current drive. The technology of the power supplies and voltage modulators needed for the generators was based (up to a few years ago) exclusively on vacuum tubes (HV triodes and tetrodes) (Figs. 1-2).

Stabilized HV power supply for LH of FTUFig.1 - Stabilized HV power supply
for National Research Council (CNR), Milan
High-voltage modulator of gyrotron for FTU ECRH systemFig. 2 - High-voltage modulator
of gyrotron for FTU ECRH system

High-voltage solid-state modulator for ITER CPD gyrotronFig. 3 - High-voltage solid-state
modulator for ITER CPD gyrotron

The FUS-ING Section is carrying out development and design work, in collaboration with the Italian company of OCEM SpA, for a HV modulator prototype, in which the vacuum tubes will be completely substituted by solid-state components (IGBT, MOSFET, Fig. 3).
The activity comes under the ITER project and avails of the financial contribution of the European Programme on Fusion Research. Characterisation and testing of the prototype, planned for April 2005, will be performed at the Technical and Scientific Unit of the Frascati Research Centre.

Table 1 below summarises the characteristics of the main systems developed by ENEA.

Main systems developed in the field of stabilized high-voltage power supplies.
Tab. 1
 
Stabilized power supply for Milan CNR
Max. output voltage 100 kV
Max. output current 50 A
Accuracy/precision of voltage 1%
Max. modulation frequency of voltage 10 kHz
 
Stabilized power supply of FTU
Lower-Hybrid Gyrotron
Max. anode-cathode voltage 140 kV
Max. output current 25 A
Max voltage modulation 30 KVpeak-peak
Accuracy/precision of voltage 0.5%
Max. modulation frequency of voltage 10 kHz
 
High-Voltage PS modulator for FTU electron
cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) gyrotron
Max. anode-cathode voltage 80 kV
Max. output current 50 A
Max voltage modulation 30 KVpeak-peak
Accuracy of voltage 0.5%
Max. modulation frequency of voltage 10 kHz
 
High-Voltage static body modulator
for ITER CPD gyrotron
Max. body-cathode voltage 100 kV
Max. body-collector voltage 45 kV
Max voltage modulation 30 KVpeak-peak
Max. modulation frequency of voltage 10 kHz
Voltage precision 0.5%